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According to the definition formulated by the WHO, health is as: "A state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." (WHO, 1948), is a state of complete physical, mental, social without any complaints at all (disability or illness). In Act No. 23 of 1992 also stated containing health mental and social dimensions: "Health is a state se jahtera of body, soul and soc ial that allows each person to live socially and economically productive".
Another sense, k poor living conditions Health is a dynamic state of seimba ng, influenced by genetic factors, environmental and patterns of daily life such as eating, drinking, sex, work, rest, until the management of emotional life. The health status becomes corrupted when equilibrium is disturbed, but most of the damage to the beginning of the period that the damage is not serious if people would notice it.
International independent agency reviewers military field, the gmglobalconnect Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), in 2015 launched the data of interest to be observed regarding the import of weapons in Southeast Asia.
The report reveals, Indonesia is a net importer main weaponry system (defense equipment) second largest in Southeast Asia with a value of USD683 million (around Rp9.3 trillion). The amount is only lost from Vietnam who imported weapons worth USD870 million (approximately 11.8 trillion).
As for the import of defense equipment Indonesia mostly came from China (648 units), the UK (505 units), and the United States (462 units). So how to interpret the data is in line with the government's commitment to realize the independence of the defense to develop the domestic defense industry, particularly in the context of the national defense industry to develop the independence of Indonesia in the long term?
Quo Vadis Independence Defense Industry
Basically the procurement of defense equipment security boils down to two policy guidelines: import or own production. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. For however important to note, the independence of the defense industry are fully merupakanhalyangsulitdicapai.
Even by developed countries though because of the spread of raw materials, technology, and production efficiency in some countries make the most of the defense industry should be mutually supportive. Nevertheless, it does not necessarily justify in the long term for the continuous import of defense equipment from other countries.
There are at least two fundamental considerations why we must prepare sedinimungkinkemampuandandukungan from the government to develop the national defense industry we are competitive, as policy options that have been mandated by Law No. 16 Year 2012 on Defence Industry and other regulations that Indonesia will take the road of independence to develop its defense industry ,
Self-reliance is the state control in determining the manufacture, maintenance, use, and defense procurement. First, Indonesia can learn from the experience of the past when the United States and its allies in the 1999-2005 embargo on Indonesia so we can not buy defense equipment and spare parts from them.
Are not limited to, various defense equipment belonging to Indonesia that has been purchased may not be used. Even more distressing, the United States and Britain also do not supply parts for a wide range of defense equipment belonging to Indonesia. The condition is when it directly affects the Indonesian defense forces so that ultimately affect a lot of things, especially the declining effect of deterrence in maintaining Indonesia's sovereignty.
In summary of those past experiences, we can draw important lessons that the defense forces created by the import of weapons is actually a pseudo force. Second, the advantage if Indonesia has an advanced defense industry and independent economic benefits that are expected to contribute to economic growth in the country because the state money is not flowing into many other countries that have the capability of producing defense equipment.
Besides a healthy defense industry will also encourage their clusters to a domino effect on economic growth itself. When viewed from the side of the state budget, the number of Indonesia's defense budget in recent years in fact the trend has always rise in line with the projections ever made Jane's Defence Budget that Indonesia's defense budget will double from about 50 trillion in 2010 to Rp 100 trillion in 2017.
The amount of the ideal number of a country's defense budget amounted to 2% of gross domestic product (GDP) has not been achieved given from 2013 to 2017 defense budget is still about 0.8% of GDP. But that does not mean we should make pessimistic.
Precisely the current budget limitations should be placed in the optimistic scenario in the future for the development of the defense industry. Some of the leading research institutions in the world such as Standard Chartered Research, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Citi Investment Research and Analysis, Institute for VOX (about Global Growth Generators), and Jim O'Neill, economist at Goldman Sachs shows that Indonesia will become a new economic giant and is considered a potential to go to 4 or 5 major economic power in the next 20 years to 2050.
Imagining Indonesia will be one of the countries with the largest economies in the world, but with a minimal defense industry will certainly be a major shortage. Not only wasted opportunity, but also would drain state money for the purchase of defense equipment from other countries. Therefore, in relation to the defense industry, great potential is to be anticipated as early as possible.
role of Government
The condition of Indonesia's defense industry is still far from ideal. There are still many shortcomings that need improvement and defense of government. In comparison with other country's defense industry, data reported by SIPRI show from Indonesia's defense industry no one has entered the top 100 prestigious companies in the world.
In Asia there are several companies included in the list, namely Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan which in 2012 recorded sales of defense equipment amounted to USD3,010 billion and employs 31 111 employees. Then from Singapore's ST Engineering, which is owned by Tamasek Holding employs 22,000 employees and posted sales in 2012 worth USD1,890 billion.
BAE Systems Australia is also included in the list by number of employees 5,500 people and recorded sales in 2012 worth USD1,760 billion. Next there is the company Samsung of South Korea with total sales of USD1,557 billion. Outside of such dominance, there is a company called Bharat Electronics, which manufactures a wide range of electronic equipment for defense needs belong to India in 2012 recorded sales of USD960 million.
Indonesia could actually learn from the experience of other countries that have successfully built its defense industry as India, Turkey, China, Brazil, and South Korea. The key to success lies in the construction of the country's strong relations between the government and defense industry.
The role of government at a time occupy three seats in the scheme of the defense industry ideal, ie as consumers, sponsors, and regulators called as the defense industrial triptych. Thus we must encourage our governments optimal third play that role and is consistent with encouraging alignments against the construction of the independence of the national defense industry so that one day the Indonesian military must use combat equipment coming from Indonesia.
This is so that we are more independent and in the global defense equipment market we can compete with the products of other countries, minimal control of the regional market. Indeed the bright spot of our defense industry advances, especially the quality of products began to international attention.
Currently, some products made in our own defense industry proved unable to compete with other developed countries because it won the international championship shot some time ago with weapons PT Pindad (Persero) as SS-2 assault rifle V-4 and G-2 gun.
That means perception and worries us that our defense industry products are not competitive with foreign-made products is not entirely true. It should be realized working to develop the independence of national defense industry is a long and laborious work.
None of the industry in its early major direct and influential, especially the defense industry. Two world-class defense industry such as Thales and BAE Systems also experienced ups and downs in developing its business before becoming an influential defense industry in the world.
Because inevitably, to overcome the backwardness of the defense industry of developed countries, there are steps we can do. Among them, first, we have to cleverly hold strategic partners overseas to overcome the technological backwardness of defense equipment.
In addition to the policy of normative by sending human resources to study abroad, we also need to consider pragmatic steps short term, for example by cooperation with foreign countries such as joint ventures, joint production, even necessary to consider SOE defense industry buying defense industry abroad who is collapse or buy some shares of the industry. Second, appropriate technology transfer strategies.
Do not let technology transfer efforts actually become an obstacle to the procurement process. We can follow the example of the success stories of many countries that managed to develop a strategy of technology transfer in line with the interests of their defense industry. Third, preparation of development policies of Indonesia's defense force must be structured in line with the independence of the alignments of development of the defense industry.
With consistency and approaches, in the long run we will be more optimistic that the independence of our defense industry will be achieved and is expected to become one of the leading defense industry in the world.